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$\textbf{Directions : }$ Read the following passage carefully and answer questions based on the passage. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question, out of the four alternatives.

For most of human history, we were born into small societies of a few people, bands of hunters and gatherers, and would see, on a typical day, only people we had known most of our lives. Everything our long-ago ancestors ate or wore, every tool they used, every shrine at which they worshipped, was made within that group. Their knowledge came from their ancestors or from their own experiences. That is the world that shaped us, the world in which our nature was formed. Now, if I walk down New York's Fifth Avenue on an ordinary day, I will have within sight more human beings than most of those prehistoric hunter-gatherers saw in a lifetime. Between then and now agriculture; created villages, towns, and, in the end, cities. Gradually they discovered the power of writing. But it was a slow process. The population of classical Athens when Socrates died, at the end of the fifth century $\text{BC}$ could have lived in a few large skyscrapers. When, in the first century, the population of Rome reached a million, it was the first city of its size. By then, they had already worked out how to live cheek by jowl in societies where most of those who spoke your language and shared your laws and grew the food on your table were people you would never know. It is, I think, little short of miraculous that brains shaped by our long history could have been turned to this new way of life.

The most extraordinary point of comparison between early and modern societies from the writer's perspective is :

  1. Early societies functioned within known groups while modern societies function largely with strangers
  2. Early societies were hunter-gatherer bands while modern societies are not
  3. Modern societies are much less in population than the early hunter-gatherer groups
  4. $5^{\text{th}}$ Century $\text{BC}$ Athens was a more advanced city than New York
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